Anode and Cathode Materials


One option for the synthesis of cathode and anode materials is the so-called solid-state process. In this process route, the active material is created from the raw materials through a chemical transformation in suitable furnaces. Depending on the raw materials used, a wet grinding stage with dry pre-grinding processes can be required for the raw materials prior to the synthesis.

The CGS and s-Jet® fluidized bed jet mills can be used for the dry grinding. For the wet grinding, the Zeta, Neos or Zeta RS agitator bead mills are used, depending on the required target fineness. Synthesis via a furnace process can result in the formation of undesired agglomerates. In order to separate these, a dry dispersion with a CSM classifier mill is usually carried out after the synthesis furnace, without change of the original size and shape of primary particles.


Typical compounds for cathode materials are:

  • LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide, LiCoO2)
  • NCA (Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide, LiNiCoAlO2)
  • NMC (Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide, Li[NiCoMn]O2)
  • LMO (Lithium Manganese Oxide, LiMn2O4)
  • LFP (Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4)
  • The conductor foil is usually made of aluminum.

Some examples of active materials for anodes are:

  • Amorphous Carbon
  • Graphite
  • Lithium Titanate (LTO, Li4Ti5O12)
  • Metallic Anode Materials (Silicon, Tin)
  • The conductor foil is usually made of copper.

Wet Grinding

Wet Grinding

Products & Solutions in the field of Wet Grinding

Grinding System Neos

The agitator cooling with the newly-developed Neos grinding system stands for maximum performance, product quality and efficiency. Coupled with the reliable use of extremely small grinding media, you can achieve your required product quality with high production output and low specific energy consumption.

Grinding System Zeta® - formerly LMZ

The Zeta® grinding system is, in every respect, a user friendly, low-maintenance and very reliable grinding system.

Nano mill Zeta® RS

Specially designed for grinding and dispersing to the nanometer range. This new development combines easy handling and revolutionary machine technology with ergonomic design.

The next Generation of Agitator Bead Mills

NETZSCH-Feinmahltechnik GmbH has now developed the new Alpha® modular machine platform. Compared to earlier-generation machines, this series is designed such that different grinding systems can be mounted on the same base platform as appropriate for a defined drive capacity.

Dry Grinding

Dry Grinding

Products & Solutions in the field of Dry Grinding

CGS Fluidized Bed Jet Mill

The combination of an air jet mill and a dynamic air classifier represent fine dry grinding in perfection. The highest of final finenesses with an exact maximum particle size limitation become reproducible. The development of the new e-Jet® and s-Jet® grinding methods constantly yields new, interesting areas of application, both economically and technically. Applicable for finenesses from 1 to 70 µm (d97).

Machine sizes available for grinding air volumes from approx. 50 to 12,000 Nm³/h.

CSM Classifier Mill

The dynamic air classifier integrated into the grinding chamber housing of this fine impact mill manufactures fine particle sizes with a defined maximum particle size limitation. Internal classification of the coarse material results in a more stable and energy efficient process than a mill with an external classification circuit. Applicable for finenesses from 10 to 150 µm (d97).

Machine sizes with drive capacities from 1.5 - 250 kW and air volume of approx. 50 - 26,000 Nm³/h.

s-Jet® Steam Jet Mill

The s-Jet® System (patent pending) is a new innovation in a line of consistent developments being made in the area of air jet milling. Final finenesses in the submicron range (example: d50 0.2 µm) can now be achieved with fluidized bed jet mills. As opposed to conventional dry grinding processes with fluidized bed jet mills, the s-Jet® System uses superheated steam as its milling gas.