Ores, Minerals and Metals

The mining and extraction of natural resources has played an important role throughout the history of mankind.

Mineral deposits exist worldwide. Some regions possess exceptional types or exceptionally large quantities, other regions possess very little. Economics determine whether a mineral ore deposit is valuable enough for excavation. The components needed for processing are then extracted from the mineral aggregates that have been mined.

Various steps are necessary – mixing, grinding, etc. – for the processing of natural materials.


Metals and their alloys are almost as old as the history of mankind and have had a lasting effect on our culture. For this reason, certain periods in the history of mankind have been named after the materials used, such as the Bronze Age or the Iron Age. 

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Precious Metals / Rare Earths

In addition to gold and silver, platinum metals such as mercury and rhenium are also counted among the classical precious metals. At room temperature in air, these elements either do not corrode at all or do so extremely slowly and to a very slight degree.

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Hard Metals

Hard metals are used extensively for mounting tools and parts for machining, chipless profiling and abradant attrition. Considered as composite materials, this materials group is characterized by its metallic nature and the particular combination of the properties hardness and toughness.

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Calcium Carbonate

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which occurs primarily in the form of the minerals calcite and aragonite, is one of the most prevalent compounds on Earth. Calcium carbonate is not only the main component of marble, limestone and dolomite, it is also found in bones and teeth as well as the exoskeleton of crustaceans, coral, muscles, snails and protozoa.

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The matt white lustrous mineral talc (magnesium silicate hydroxide) with the chemical composition [Mg3(OH)2(Si2O5)2] is one of the phyllosilicates and has a Mohs hardness of 1.

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In addition to diamond and fullerene, graphite is the third modification of carbon. The metallic gray mineral occurs frequently in nature, usually crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system and has a layer structure.

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